This chapter consists on a review of the questions the paper has posed at the start, reassessing them with respect to the previous analysis and findings. It seeks to revisit the central problem statement: “What are the dimensions of
Final observations will be advanced, with respect to the wider context of Africa-China relations. These are followed by a conclusion suggesting areas of future research both regarding the specific cases approached and
China develop ? Mozambique
From the previous analysis, the most prominent dimensions of
Furthermore, it is important to note the importance of the regional dimension of
The Mphanda Nkuwa Dam showed just how Chinese stakeholders are in fact open to change, as well as liable to being wrangled into deals and structures they did not initially set out to seek. This is noteworthy as it means that different investment models can be pushed for and actively pursued by local African governance institutions. For that to happen, governments will have to focus in moving from being “transmission belts” for
Greater synergetic ties between economic stakeholders and the diplomatic corps are essential. This must occur not only at the national level but also at the level of the regional and international spheres. For instance,
Many developing countries in
Does a look at
As opposed to Neo-Realism, under a Neo-Liberal perspective the interdependence that arises in
The previous exercise observing
Having said that, there is still room for greater analytical refinement of the China-Africa body of literature, namely in understanding what the smaller narratives of the relationship represent for the claims being made in the wider debates. What is also missing in the discourse is the ability to find an intellectual framework that assesses the rise of China within the context of the East's dominance in the period before Christ and whether the re-emergence of China as a powerful economy in the global system is being witnessed - a return of history (Alvarenga, Jansson, & Naidu, 2008 incoming). As for work further required in terms of specific China-Mozambique relations there are particular areas of relations which remain under-researched. These comprise military relations as well as the particularities of
Some of the most significant political and economic intricacies of
To this end, the promises being made to Africa through the FOCAC Commitments and now with the Macau-Forum provide
At the end of the day, one needs to find “a tolerable median between uncritical acceptance and knee-jerk rejectionism” (Obiorah 2007: 53) and
ADB & ADF. (2006).
Africa-Asia confidential. (2007, December 14). Africa-India. Strategic Partnerships. Africa-Asia Confidential .
Afrodad. (2007). Ultimately, in this scenario one of the biggest challenges has been drawing the line between aid and direct investment. expand. Afrodad.
Alden, C. (2007).
Alden, C. (2005). China-Africa relations: the end of the beginning. In P. Draper, & G. Pere, Enter the Dragon - towards a free trade agreement between
Allaudin, M., & Tisdell, C. (1995). Labor Absorption and Agricultural Development:
Alvarenga, D., Jansson, J., & Naidu, S. (2008 (incoming)).
Anderlini, J. (2008, May 8).
Angola Press. (2007, September 11). Moçambique: Governo quer cativar empresários de Macau . Retrieved February 20, 2008, from Angola Press: http://www.angolapress-angop.ao/noticia.asp?ID=573580
Arndt, C. (2007). Comments on : "The war ended 15 years ago but we are still poor" authored by Joseph Hanlon. National Directorate of Studies and Policy Analysis, Ministry of Planning and Development.
Askouri, A. (2007).
Askouri, A. (2008). Civil Society Initiative in
Auty, M. (1993). Sustaining Development in Mineral Economies: The resource curse thesis.
Babbie, E., & Mouton, J. (2007). The practice of social research.
Barma, N., & Ratner, E. (2006 (Fall)).
BBC. (2007, May 21).
Bebbington, A., & Batterbury, P. (2001 Vol. 9, No. 4). Transnational Livelihoods and Landscapes: Political Ecologies of Globalisation. Cultural Geographies , 369-380.
Beri, R. (2005, Vol. 29, No.3). Africa's energy potential: Prospects for
Bezanson, K., & Sagasti, F. (2005). Prospects for Development Thinking and Practice. Rockefeller Foundation.
Bila, A. (2007). Chinese Capital in
Billon, P. L. (2006). Fuellin War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflicts. Adelphi PAper 373, ISS & Routledge.
Biswas, A. (2007).
Bosshard, P. (2008).
Bosten, A. (2006).
Bowen, H. (1999). Modelling electricity trade policy for the twelve nations of the
Broadman, H. (2006). Africa’s Silk Road:
Broadman, H. (2008 Mar/Apr, Vol.87, No.2).
Brooks, S. (1997 Vol.51, No.3). Duelling Realisms. International Organisation , 445-477.
Brown, C. (2001). Understanding International Relations.
Brown, O., Hammil, A., & Maclemman, R. (2007 Vol.6 No.83). Climate change as the 'new' security threat: implications for
Bucuane, A., & Mulder, P. (2007). Exploring and Electricity Tax on Mega Projects in
Bull, H. (1995). The Anarchical Society.
Burke, C. (2007 Issue 17, April). Evaluating
Burke, C., & Corkin, L. (2006).
Burke, C., Naidu, S., & Nepgen, A. (2008 ). Scoping Study on
Business Map. (2000). SADC Investor Survey: complex terrain.
Callinicos, A. (2005 No.42). Epoch and Conjuncture in Marxist Political Economy. International Politics .
Carbonne, G. (2005 Vol.43, No. 3). Continuidade na renovação - ten years of multiparty politics in
Carporaso, J. (1993). International Relations theory and multilateralism: the search for foundations. In J. Ruggie, Multilateralism matters: the theory and praxis of an institutional reform. New York: Columbia University Press.
Carriço, M. (2008, April). A China em África e o caso da Cooperação Sino-Moçambicana. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from Revista Militar: http://www.revistamilitar.pt/modules/articles/article.php?id=241
Cecil, C. (2005, April). Gum Arabic. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from Saudi Aramco World: http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200502/gum.arabic.htm
Centro de Informação Comercial e de Mercados (ipex). (2007, May). Encontro de Maputo bate record. Retrieved February 20, 2008, from Centro de Informação Comercial e de Mercados (ipex): http://www.ipex.gov.mz/ipexinfo/IPEXinfo105.pdf
Chan-Fishell, M. (2007). Environmental impact: more of the same? . In F. Manji, African Perspectives on
Chernoff, F. (2002 Vol.46). Scientific Realism as a Meta-Theory of International Politics. International Studies Quarterly , 198-207.
Cheru, F. (2007 No.3). Decoding the evolving China-Africa relations. News from the Nordic Africa Institute , 11-13.
Chidaushe, M. (2007).
Chinese Embassy SA. (2004). The five principles. Retrieved April 20, 2008, from Chinese embassy: http://chinese-embassy.org.za/eng/topics/seminaronfiveprinciples/t140589.htm
Chow, G. (2000 Vol.11 ).
Collier, P. (2003). Natural Resources, Development and Conflict: Channels of causation and Policy interventions. World Bank.
Copeland, D. (1996 Vol.20 No.4). Economic Interdependence and War. International Security .
CORDIO. (2002). Coral Reef Degradation in the
Corkin, L. (2008, February). Chinese Migrants to
Cox, R. (1996). Global Perestroika. In R. Cox, Approaches to World Order (pp. 296-313).
Cuereneia, A. (2001). The process of decentralisation and local governance in
Dahl, R. (1972). Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition.
Davies, M., & Corkin, L. (2007).
Davies, M., Naidu, S.,
Diário Económico. (2007, May 11). BCP assina acordo para facilitar investimento na China, Angola e Moçambique. Retrieved February 20, 2008, from Diário Económico: http://diarioeconomico.sapo.pt/edicion/diarioeconomico/nacional/empresas/pt/desarrollo/992133.html
Dickins, A. (2006 Vol.82 No.3). The evolution of International Political Economy. International Affairs , 479-92.
Dowden, R. (2007).
Drapner, P., & Sally, R. (2005). Developing Country Coalitions in Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Aligning the Majors? SAIIA Trade Report Nº8.
Edwards, C., & Rhys, J. (2005). The effect of
Ellis, L. (2007). China Exim Bank in
Engineering News. (2008).
Eriken, S., O'Brien, K., & Rosentrater, L. (2007). Climate change in eastern and southern
Ethiopia Investment Agency. (2007). Investment Figures of
Evans, A. (2008). Rising Food Prices: Drivers and Implications for Development.
FAO. (2008). Soaring Food Prices: Facts, Perspectives, Impacts and Actions Required . High-Level Conference on World Food Security: The Challenges of Climate Change and Bioenergy.
FAO/WFP. (2005). Crop and Food Supply Assessment
Financial Times. (2008, May 12). Food investment, not imperialism. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from Financial Times: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/76df89f2-2051-11dd-80b4-000077b07658.html
Galli, R. (2003). People's Spaces and State Spaces: Land and Governance in
Games, D. (2007). Mozambique: The business view, results of a survey on the business environment and investment climate. Business Leadership
Geda, A. (2006). The impact of
Ghazvinian, A. (2008). Impacts of Deforestation in
Gill, S. (1991). American Hegemony and the Trilateral Commission.
Global Timber. (2006).
Goldstein, e. a. (2006). The rise of
Gomes, A. (2007). Draft Report on
Guerrero, D., & Manji, F. (2008).
Guttal, S. (2008). Client and Competitor:
Harrison, G. (1999, Vol. 26, No 81). Clean-ups, conditionality & adjustment: why institutions matter in
Henders, S. (2001). So What If It’s Not a Gamble? Post-Westphalian Politics in
Herbst, J. (2004). Let them fail. In R. Rotberg, When states fail: Causes and Consequences. Princeton University Press.
Hodges, T., & Tibana, R. (2005). A Economia Politica do Orçamento em Moçambique.
Horta, L. (2008).
Horta, L. (2008). The Zambezi valley,
Hughes, A., & Brewster, H. (2003). Lowering the threshold: Reducing the cost and risk of Private Direct Investment in Least Developed, Small Economies. Economic Paper, Commonwealth Secretariat .
Hussain, A., Stern, N., & Stiglitz, J. (2006). Chinese reforms from a comparative perspective. In G. l.
IHT. (2007). Philippine leader says bilateral trade agreements '2nd best solution' next to WTO deal. Retrieved January 5, 208, from IHT: http://www.iht.com/bin/print.php?id=7577891
Ikenberry, J. (2008). Rise of
IMF. (2007). IMF World Economic Outlook: Spillovers and Cycles in the Global Economy. IMF - World Economic and Financial Surveys.
International Rice Research Institute. (2007). Rice Around the World:
International Rivers Network. (2006, April 28). Mega–Barragem Moçambicana vai agravar a pobreza e a subsistência. Retrieved February 20, 2008, from International Rivers Network: http://internationalrivers.org/en/mega-barragem-mo-ambicana-vai-agravar-pobreza-e-subsist-ncia
International Rivers Network. (2007, May 14). NGOs to
IRN. (2006). Damning the Zambeze - risks outweight the benefits of proposed Mphanda Nkuwa Dam. IRN.
Jornal Notícias de Moçambique . (2007 ). Ambiente propício para geração de electricidade. Jornal Notícias de Moçambique .
Jornal Notícias de Moçambique . (
Jornal Notícias de Moçambique . (2007 B, Setembro 27). Tecnologias agrícolas e infra-estruturas : China disponibiliza fundos. Jornal Notícias .
Jornal Notícias de Moçambique. (2007 C ). Batata e Cebola, Moçambique continua dependente da RAS. Jornal Notícias de Moçambique , 4 July.
Jornal Tribuna de Macau. (2007). RAEM recebe autoridades económicas da lusofonia. Retrieved June 20, 2008, from Jornal Tribuna de Macau: http://www.jtm.com.mo/view.asp?dt=278403010
Kaberuka, D. (2007). Transcript of Interview with Donald Kaberuka. Retrieved June 2 , 2008, from Financial Times: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/bdc54516-0511-11dc-b151-000b5df10621.html .
Kaplinsky, R., & Morris, M. (2007). Do the Asian Drivers undermine export-oriented Industrialisation in SSA. Open University.
Kaplinsky, R., McCormick, D., & Morris, M. (2006). The Impact of
Karumbidza, J. (2007). Win-win economic cooperation: can
Katzenstein, P. (1976 Vol.30, No.1). International Relations and Domestic Structures: Foreign Economic Policies of Advanced Industrial States. International Organisation .
Keet, D. (2008). The role and impact of Chinese economic operations in
Kennan, J., & Stevens, C. (2005). Opening the Package: The Asian drivers and poor-country trade.
Kenya Investment Agency. (2007). Investment Figures of
Keohane, R. (1984). After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discor in World Political Economy.
Keohane, R., & Martin, L. (1994 Vol.20 No1). The promise of institutionalist theory (response to John Mearsheimer). International Security .
Keohane, R., & Nye, J. (1989). Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition.
Khanna, P. (2008, January 27). Waving Goodbye to Hegemony. New York Times Magazine .
Komesaroff, M. (2008).
Kurlantzick, J. (2007). Charm Offensive: How
Lampton, D. (2001). The Making of Chinese Foreign Policy and Security Policy in an Era of Reform.
Large, D. (2007). As the beginning ends:
Lee, M. (2006 Vol.24 Nº3). The 21st Century Scramble for
Lemos, A., & Ribeiro, D. (2007). Taking ownership or just changing owners? In F. Manji, & S. Marks, African Perspectives on
Lusa. (2008, March 24). Brasil: Construção de barragem em Moçambique é "prova de fogo" para empresa brasileira. Retrieved April 20, 2008, from Radio Televisão Portuguesa: http://ww1.rtp.pt/noticias/index.php?article=335173&visual=26&rss=0
Macau Government Information Bureau. (2007, November 20). Operadores do sector de convenções e exposições alcançam novos patamares graças à Feira Internacional de Macau . Retrieved February 20, 2008, from Macau Government Information Bureau: http://www.gcs.gov.mo/showNews.php?DataUcn=27589&PageLang=P
Macau Government. (2007). Portal do Governo da RAE de Macau. Retrieved February 5, 2008, from Objectivos do Forum Macau: http://www.gov.mo/egi/Portal/index.htm
Macauhub . (2007, November 30). Moçambique: Constituída Câmara de Comércio da China em Maputo. Retrieved February 2008, 2008, from Macauhub: http://www.macauhub.com.mo/pt/news.php?ID=4459
Macauhub. (2006, September 26).
Macauhub. (2008, June 11). Macau seeking to boost economic ties between Lusophone states and the
Mackenzie, C. (2006). Forest Governance in the Zambezia,
Mahajan, V. (2008).
Market Access Map . (2008). Trade Figures, UNCTAD/WTO International Trade Centre. Retrieved June 2, 2008, from Market Access Map: www.macmap.org
Marklund, K., & Odqvist, K. (2008). Perspectives on
Marks, S. (2007). Introduction. In F. Manji, African Perspectives on
Marotto, T. (2008, January 24). Camargo Correa to Build Power Plant in
Matos, A. (2005). Tendências do Comércio e do Investimento em Moçambique.
Mattoo, A., & Subramanian, A. (2005). The WTO and the Poorest Countries: The Stark reality. IMF Working Paper.
Mearsheimer, J. (2003). The Tragedy of Great Power Politics.
Menzies, G. (2003). 1421 - The year
Meyer, K., & Estrin, S. (2004). Investment Strategies in Emerging: An introduction to the Research Project. University of Bath: Edward Elgar.
Michel, S., & Beuret, M. (2008). La Chinafrique: Pekin à la Conquête du Continent Noir.
Michelmann, H., & Soldatos, P. (1990). Federalism and International Relations: The Role of Subnational Units. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ministério de Agricultura e Pescas. (1995). Política e Estratégia de Implementação de Agricultura.
Mofcom. (2007). Official FDI statistics.
Mofcom. (2007). Sino-African trade likely to hit $100 bln before 2010. Retrieved June 2, 2008, from Mofcom: http://xyf2.mofcom.gov.cn/aarticle/workaffair/200711/20071105222466.html
Morrissey, J. (2006). Meios de Subsistência e Risco: O caso da barragem de Mphanda Nkuwa. Justiça Ambiental.
Mozambique Investment Agency. (2007). Investment Figures of
Muyakwa, S. (2007). Chinese Economic Activities in
Narlikar, A., & Tussie, D. (2004 Vol.27 No.7). The G20 at the Cancun Ministerial: Developing Countries and their evolving coalitions in the WTO. World Economy .
Ndubisi, O. (2006, December 14). Who's afraid of China in Africa. Retrieved March 2, 2008, from Pambazuka News online: http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/comment/38853/print
Ndubisi, O. (2007). Who's Afraid of
Obiorah, N. (2007). The role of civil society. In F. Manji, African Perspectives of
Ougaard, M., & Higgott, R. (2002). Towards a Global Polity. Routledge.
Pamlin, D., & Baijin, L. (2007). Rethink
People Daily. (2006).
Pere, G. L., &
Ping, J. G. (2007, November 8). EXIMBANK quer assumir papel pioneiro na cooperação financeira com países lusófonos . Retrieved April 20, 2008, from Macaulogia Study Forum: http://macaulogia.blogspot.com/search?q=exim+bank+seguros
Ping, J. G. (2008, March 12). Fórum aposta no privado . Retrieved April 20, 2008, from Macaulogia Study Forum: http://macaulogia.blogspot.com/2008/03/frum-aposta-no-privado.html
Ping, J. g. (2007, July 8). Moçambique quer aprender turismo com Macau. Retrieved April 20, 2008, from Macaulogia Study Forum: http://macaulogia.blogspot.com/2007/07/moambique-quer-aprender-turismo-com.html
Ravallion, M. (2008). Are there lessons for Africa from
Ravallion, M., & Chen, S. (2007 Vol.82 No.1).
Revista Macau. (2007). Grande atenção aos recursos humanos, Interview of Wang Chengan. Retrieved June 20, 2008, from Revista Macau: http://www.revistamacau.com/rm.asp?id=004063#alto
Rocha, J. (2007). A new frontier in the exploitation of Africa's natural resources: the emergence of
Ruggie, J. (1998). Construction of World Polity.
Saner, R., & Yiu, L. (2003). International Economic Diplomacy: Mutations in Post-Modern Times. Netherlands Institute of International Relations “Clingendael”.
Sautman, B. (2006). Friends and Interests:
Serrano, O., & Prieur, J. (2006). Coalitions of Developing Countries in the WTO: Why regionalism matters? Paper presented at the WTO Seminar at the Department of Political Science at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in
Sic Notícias. (2007, December 9). Daily News.
Simmons, B., & Elkins, Z. (2004 Vol.98 ). The globalisation of liberalisation: policy diffusion in the International Political Economy. American Political Science Review .
Snow, P. (1988). The Star Raft:
Soderbaum, F., &
Soren Ambrose, L. B. (2008, April 1). Leaky logic: dams in three countries questioned. Retrieved June 15, 2008, from Bretton Woods Project: http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-561036
Strange, S. (2004). States and Markets. Continuum International Publishing.
Strange, S., & Stopford, J. (1991).
Tao, F. (2008). The Position of Civil Society Organisations in
Tarrow, S. (2001 Vol.4). Transnational Politics: Contention and Institutions in Transnational Politics. Annual Review of Political Science .
Taylor, R. (2008, April 23).
The Economist. (2005, January 6).
Tickner, V. (2008 incoming). International food price rises and volatility, impact on, and responses of African countries to them. Review of African Political Economy (to be published September 2008)
Tjonneland, E., Brandtzaeg, B., Kolas, A., & Pere, G. l. (2006).
TRALAC. (2008). China-Africa Trade Update. Retrieved June 2, 2008, from TRALAC: http://www.tralac.org/pdf/20080205_Africa-Chinaupdate2008.pdf
UNCTAD. (2007). Asian Foreign Direct Investment in
UNDP. (2007). Human Development Report 2007/2008 Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in a Divided World.
US Department of State. (2007). 2007 Investment Climate Statement –
Vigh, H., & White, S. (2003). Navigating Terrains of War. Youth and Soldiering in
Waltz, K. (1979). Theory of International Politics.
Wang, J. (2007). What drives
Warner, K. (1994). Marketing, valuation and pricing of NWFPs. In FAO, Beyond Timber: social,economic and cultural dimensions of non-wood forest products in
Weizhong, X. (2008). Sino-African relations: new transformations and challenges. In D. Guerrero, & F. Manji,
Wendt, A. (1999). Social Theory of International Politics.
White, A., Sun, X., Canby, K., Xu, J., Barr, C., Katsigris, E., et al. (2006).
Wiggins, J. (2008, May 7).
Wiseman, G. (1999). Polylateralis and New Modes of Global Dialogue. Discussion Paper no.59, Diplomatic Studies Programme,
Woetzel, J. (2008 July). Reassessing
World Bank. (2008). Beating the odds: sustaining inclusion in
Xiaogang, Y., & Pin, D. (2008). The Equator Principles and the environmental responsibilities. In D. Guerrero, & F. Manji,
Xinhua. (2007). Broader Prospect of Cooperation between
Xinhua. (2006, June 19). Premier Wen’s
Xinhua; China-Daily. (2007, May 16). China to fulfil pledges for Africa. Retrieved February 4, 2008, from China-Daily: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2007-05/16/content_874067.html
Yeld, J. (2008, March 6). Eskom may call for two time zones to spread demand. Retrieved April 11, 2008, from DST News: http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_southafrica02.html
Yi-Chong, X. (2004). Electricity Reform in
Zeng, M., & Williamson, P. J. (2007). Dragons at Your Door: How Chinese Cost innovation is Disrupting Global Competition. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation.
Zengyi, X. (2004). Estudo sobre os conflitos entre as leis de Macau e da China Continental. Retrieved April 11, 2008, from Direcção dos Seviços de Assuntos de Justiça de Macau: www.dsaj.gov.mo/MacaoLaw/cn/Data/prespectiva/issued3/pg6p.doc